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Photographic glossary


Calibration
The process of modifying or adjusting the physical behaviour of an output device to a desired and known state.
CMYK proof
Contract proofs are commonly used by photographers, retouchers and designers to contractually match a press proof. It is referred to as a contract proof as it is an agreement between the creative or your client and the people printing the final job on a CMYK press. It serves as an agreement between customer and printer and as a reference guide for adjusting the press before the final press run. This contract proof is a hard copy output that the repro-printing house recognizes as benchmark or standard for the press run. The hard copy image incorporates a colour bar or wedge, which is used by the printing house as part of a press check to measure the colour values in the image and correctly reproduce the supplied CMYK image.
Colour management
Ensemble of techniques employed for maintaining consistent color representation across devices with different input or output characteristics. 
Colour Temperature
A description of the colour of a light source in terms of the temperature of the light, measured in kelvins. High colour temperatures are colder and bluer whereas lower colour temperatures are warmer and redder.
Digital c-type
A truly photographic print, exposed using LEDs on light sensitive photographic paper and processed using traditional silver based chemistry.
Digital colour proofs
Proofs created directly from digital art files- not film. Examples of digital proofs are toner-based black and white or color lasers, phaser wax proofs, dye sublimation, IRIS, thermal and ink-jet prints.
DPI
Dots per inch used to describe the resolution number of dots per inch in a digital print. Used to describe the printing resolution of a hard copy print Dot gain - The increase in the size of the halftone dots during printing. This is caused by the spreading of ink on the surface of the media.
Gamut
The range of colours and density values reproduced on some output devices like a printer or monitor. The total range of reproducible colours.
Giclee
French name for the process of producing fine art prints from a digital source using ink-jet printing technology. Also commonly known as an inkjet print, Epson print or fine-art print. 
Halftone
The reproduction of continuous-tone artwork, such as photography or pencil sketches, through a digital screening process that converts shaded images into solid ink dots of various sizes and concentrations. A few, tiny dots produces highlight areas. A heavy concentration of large dots produces mid-tone and shadow areas. 
Interpolation
The computation of unknown data that lie between known data. Commonly referred to when upsizing image files in pixel editing software.
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group; the most common image compression format used by digital cameras.
LCD
Stands for liquid crystal display. Probably the most common monitor on today's commercial market.
Luminance
The quantity of light emitted by a light source. It is measured as the luminous intensity per unit area of light from the surface of the source.
PPI
‘Pixels per inch’. Used to describe the resolution of an onscreen image.
Print Profile
A profile that is used describe the properties of the printer and paper combination in that particular colour space. Accurate printer profiles are the key to colour managed workflow and accurate printing results. Printer profiles can be used to soft proof your images onscreen to precise proofing before sending images to print.
Rendering intent
Settings that specify how the colour management system deals with the conversion of colour from one large colour space to another smaller one. Typical rendering intents for photographic imagery are perceptual, and relative colorimetric rendering. 
Soft proofing
The technique whereby you use your monitor as a proofing device. The monitor shows a simulation of how the image will appear once printed. 
sRGB
Stands for ‘red green & blue’. An RGB colour space intended for images to be displayed on the web. Not an appropriate profile for fine art photographic printing.
Substrate
Any surface on which printing is done.
TIFF
Tagged Image File Format; an image format popular among Apple Macintosh owners, graphic artists, and the publishing industry.
White point
The colour commonly described in terms of the colour temperature of the brightest reproducible white by a certain device. For example, the white point for a photographic print is the brightness and colour of the paper. The white point of a material effects the reproduction of colour.
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